Air Conditioner Types – Choosing the Right A/C for Your Home and Needs
Which air conditioner type should you choose to keep cool efficiently and affordably? During the summer months, a combination of high temperatures, increased humidity, and bright afternoon sunlight can make it uncomfortably warm inside your home. Installing an air conditioning system will not only create a cooler indoor environment, it can also improve respiratory conditions like asthma and some types of A/C can even eliminate odours and pollutants.
There are two primary categories of air conditioning system:
- Room air conditioners: intended to cool small areas
- Central air conditioners: designed to cool an entire home or multiple areas at once
Each type has its own variations aimed at an apartment dweller or homeowner’s particular budget and needs.
To help you decide which system is right for you, we explain the features, key details, things to consider, average prices and operating costs, advantages and benefits, and potential downsides of each air conditioner type.
Window-mounted air conditioners are used to cool single rooms. They are installed in an open window with the cool air return system on the inside and the hot air exhaust turned outside.
Typical cooling capacities range from 5,000 to 12,500 British Thermal Units (BTU/hr). When deciding which capacity meets your needs, take these guidelines into account:
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An average of 20 BTU is needed for each square foot of space to be cooled
Rooms with higher ceilings may need more cooling power
Rooms that get a lot of sunlight need an additional capacity of 10%
If more than two people regularly use the room, add 600 BTU for each extra person
ENERGY STAR recommends an additional 4,000 BTU for units installed in kitchens
Before purchasing a window unit, check for an ENERGY STAR®-rating.
These models use approximately 10% less energy than comparable units and include digital thermostats, multiple cooling speeds, programmable timers, and other features that enable better control over operation and energy use (source).
PORTABLE AIR CONDITIONERS
Portable air conditioners are a recommended solution for homes and apartments that are unable to install a window unit due to unusual window configurations or building regulations.
Portable units are more flexible than window air conditioners because they can be moved from room to room. They use air inside the room to cool the condenser and blow hot air outside via a hose that vents through a window.
BTU ranges and considerations are generally similar to window air conditioners (see above). Also like window units, most portable air conditioners have adjustable thermostats and multi-speed fans for maximum climate control and even include a timer for powering the unit on and off according to a preset schedule.
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING
*Note these are just general estimates for average Canadians. Many factors can impact usage costs including the size of your home, how much you use it, the temperature at which you set your thermostat, how well-insulated your home is, local electricity prices, if you use it during peak or off-peak times, your unit’s efficiency rating, and so on.
Central air conditioning systems are designed to cool an entire home using refrigeration technology. They consist of a large compressor and coil that are installed outside and connected via refrigerant lines to a coil mounted in your furnace. The duct system is used to distribute hot air in the winter as well as cool air in the summer.
Choosing the right size of air conditioning system for your home requires a close look at different factors that affect your home’s internal temperatures. They include:
- The home’s age
- Total volume of all living spaces
- The number and orientation of your windows
- How much sunshine can enter the home
- Type and condition of existing ventilation system and ductwork
- Is there room above your furnace for the coil? In some homes the furnace may be in a crawlspace or otherwise not have enough room to fit the new central A/C’s coil.
Buying the right size for your home is important. If the system you select is too big, it will over-cool the air and turn off too quickly. The walls, furniture, and other structures will not be sufficiently cooled, however, causing the AC to start up again and create an expensive series of ‘short runs’. Undersized systems are just as problematic, as they will waste energy -and cost money- by running continuously, struggling to adequately cool the home.
Once you source a system that is the right size to cool your home, you will want to check its Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) rating. The higher the rating, the less energy it will consume. ENERGY STAR® qualified systems range between 12 and 23 SEER.
Note room air conditioners are typically rated using Energy Efficiency Rating (EER), while central A/Cs are typically rated using SEER (source).
DUCTLESS MINI-SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER
Split air conditioning systems are ductless, which is ideal in home extensions, condos, and smaller homes or older homes and buildings with hydronic or electric baseboard heating that have no ductwork. They work by extracting hot air and humidity from the room(s) and expelling both through the compressor into the outdoors. Compressor refrigerants cool air from the exterior and the fan blows the chilled air around the room.
Like single-package air conditioning systems, a favourable SEER rating is important when it comes to saving money. An ENERGY STAR® qualified split system will have a rating of 13.0 and up (source).
CHOOSING THE RIGHT SYSTEM FOR YOUR HOME AND NEEDS
When determining which type of air conditioner you require, you will need to consider the size of the area being cooled and whether you want a temporary or permanent cooling solution.
When it comes to air conditioning systems, no A/C type is superior to another. The most practical and cost-effective choice depends on your home’s configuration and layout as well as your personal preference. Consultation with an expert will help you select the appropriate type, model, and size for your budget.